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2022陕西专升本英语语法重难点之被动语态

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一、时态与语态的结合


一般现在时 am/is/are done


一般过去时 was/were done


一般将来时 shall/will be done


现在进行时 am/is/are being done


现在完成时 have/has been done


过去完成时 had been done


含有情态动词的 can/must/may be done


二、被动语态的否定


被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。


固定结构 be going to, used to, have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。


Trees should not be planted in summer.


The boy was made fun of by his classmates.


Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl.


三、无主语用被动语态


汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示:


It is believed that…


It is said that…


It is well known that…


It is reported that…


四、带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也可以是间接宾语。


She lent me a bike.


被动:①I was lent a bike(by her).


②A bike was lent to me(by her).


五、情态动词+be+过去分词:


This problem must be worked out in half an hour.


六、下面主动形式常表示被动意义


1.不及物动词与状语连用,用以表示主语的品质和状态。


常见动词是:cut, sell, read,write, fill, cook, lock, wash 等。


This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。


These books sell well.这些书好卖。


The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。


Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。


The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。


2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。


常见动 look, smell, taste, sound, feel, prove, turn out 等。


The apples taste good.


The flower smells wonderful.


The news proved/turned out true.


Cotton feels soft.


3. need/want/require/worth +doing 表示被动


七、下面词或短语没有被动态:


leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur,


belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等


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