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陕西专升本英语语法重难点之非谓语动词

发布时间:2021-08-09 来源:未知 阅读:人次

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非 谓 语 动 词


所谓非谓语动词,就是指它们不能在句子中单独作谓语。


但它们又具有动词的特征,即可以有宾语(如果是及物动词的话)、可以有时态和语态的变化、可以有自己的逻辑主语。


同时,它们又具有名词的某些特征,即它们可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。


一、动词不定式: 动词不定式(时态与语态):


1. 作主语:


To say something is one thing, to do it is another.


2. 作表语:


My suggestion is to carry out the plan immediately.


[注意]:在 let, make, see, notice, hear 等动词后面,作宾补的不定式均省去 to.


He made a face and made everybody___________(laugh).


但是,在被动语态中,作主语补足语的不定式则要加上 to.


3. 作定语:


He used to have a lot of meeting to attend.


[注意]:当出现 the first / second / last / only /best 时,常跟不定式作定语


He was the first man _____________ (get) to school this morning.


4. 不定式作状语:


To see what would happen, we stayed there.


二、分词 ( 现在分词 和 过去分词 )


(一)V-ing 形式(时态与语态):


1.___________ (be) poor, he couldn’t go to school.


2. We are interested in _____________ ( play) chess.


(二)现在分词和过去分词在语态和时间方面有较大区别:


1. 现在分词表示的意义是主动的,进行的:


the girl gathering flowers.


2. 过去分词表示的意义是被动的,完成的:


the flowers gathered this morning.


3. 现在分词的完成时态表示主语一致,主动关系,时间上先做某事


Having watered the garden, the old man went to have a rest.


(三)功能与用法


1. 作表语:


The news is very exciting. / They are very excited at the news.


2. 作定语:


Don’t disturb the sleeping child.


The arrested thief will be sentenced soon.


3. 作宾补:


He likes to sit on the beach and watch the seagulls flying.


The work left everyone exhausted.


[注意]: 有些动词如 see, hear, feel, notice, watch 等既可跟现在分词,也可跟不带 to 的不定式作复合宾语。


它们的区别在于:现在分词着重说明动作正在发生;不定式着重说明动作的全过程


I saw the boys climbing the wall. 我看见孩子在爬墙。


I saw the boys climb the wall. 我看见孩子爬墙了。


4. 作状语:


They stood there waiting for the bus.


Hearing the knock on the door, they stopped talking.


Asked to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film.


三、动名词的用法


My hobby is collecting stamps.


1.作主语和表语


动名词做主语往往表示经常性、习惯性的动作, 在口语中也可以表示具体的动作。


Seeing is believing.


[注意]:在 It is no use (good)”等习惯表达法中,常用形式主语 it”


It is no use quarreling with her.


Is it worthwhile trying again?


2. 作介词宾语


Have you got used to working on the night shift(值班)?


Children are fond of reading detective stories.


[注意]某些习惯用法中,常省略介词,仅保留动名词


He is busy (in) preparing a report.


They spent a lot of time (in) making preparation.


We had great difficulty / trouble (in) finding his house.


3、有些动词虽然既可跟不定式又可跟动名词作宾语,但意义差别较大


remember to do 记住要做某事 remember doing 记得曾做过某事


forget to do 忘记要做某事


regret to do 因要做某事感到不安 regret doing 因做了某事感到后悔


forget doing 忘记曾做过某事


四、分词做表语有两种情况


一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。


一般来说,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing 形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed 形式。


这类词常见的有:


interesting 令人感兴趣的 --interested 感到有趣的;


--excited 感到激动的


exciting 令人激动的


--delighted 感到高兴的;


delighting 令人高兴的


disappointing 令人失望的 --disappointed 感到失望的


五、必背


admit, advise, avoid, can't help, consider, delay, deny, escape, enjoy, finish, feel,like, imagine, mind, practise, risk, suggest 等动词以及所有带介词的短语动词后面只能跟动名词做宾语。


The boy was lucky enough to escape being punished.


六、必背


look forward to, pay attention to, stick to, devote,get/be used to, object to 中的 to 是介词,因而其后接动名词做宾语。


I'm looking forward to seeing you again.


to, make contributions to,


七、主动形式表示被动意义


动词 want, need, require、worth 后作宾语的动名词的主动形式。这时句中的动名词与句子的主语有逻辑上的动宾关系。


The TV set wants ( needs / requires) fixing.


= The TV set wants (needs / requires) to be fixed.


The film is worth seeing.